Geriatric Examination Tool Kit

Parkinson's Disease: Functional Assessment Scales

Hoehn and Yahr: (more detail than given in O'Sullivan 5th ed.)
Harvard Medical School Massachusetts General Hospital Neurosurgical Service

Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (same as O'Sullivan 5th ed. C.21, Appendix A)
Harvard Medical School Massachusetts General Hospital Neurosurgical Service


Giladia N, Shabtaia H, Simona ES, Biranb S, Talc J, Korczyna AD. (2000). Construction of freezing of gait questionnaire for patients with Parkinsonism.
Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 6(3), 165-170.


Schenkman, et al. provide benchmark values on the TUG, Functional Reach, 6MW, etc. for different stage on the Hoehn & Yahr, and also the UPDRS.

Schenkman M, Ellis T, Christiansen C, Barón AE, Tickle-Degnen L, Hall DA, Wagenaar R. (2011). Profile of functional limitations and task performance among people with early- and middle-stage Parkinson disease. Phys Ther. 91(9):1339-54.


Huang, et al. determined the Minimal Detectable Change (MDC) of the TUG to be 3.5 sec, and the MDC for the Dynamic Gait Index was 2.9 points.

Huang SL, Hsieh CL, Wu RM, Tai CH, Lin CH, Lu WS. (2011). Minimal detectable change of the timed "up & go" test and the dynamic gait index in people with Parkinson disease. Phys Ther. 91(1):114-21.


Ambulation Aid for person with PD ... will it be helpful or not?

Boonsinsukh et al. : A cane improves postural recovery from an unpracticed slip during walking in people with Parkinson disease.

Boonsinsukh R, Saengsirisuwan V, Carlson-Kuhta P, Horak FB. (2012). A cane improves postural recovery from an unpracticed slip during walking in people with Parkinson disease. Phys Ther. 92(9):1117-29.

Kegelmeyer et al: Assistive devices alter gait patterns in Parkinson disease: Advantages of the four-wheeled walker.

Kegelmeyer DA, Parthasarathy S, Kostyk SK, White SE, Kloos AD. (2012). Assistive devices alter gait patterns in Parkinson disease: Advantages of the four-wheeled walker. Gait Posture. 2012 Dec 10. pii: S0966-6362(12)00400-6. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.10.027. Epub ahead of print

Cubo et al: Wheeled and standard walkers in Parkinson's disease patients with gait freezing.

Cubo E, Moore CG, Leurgans S, Goetz CG. (2003). Wheeled and standard walkers in Parkinson's disease patients with gait freezing. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2003 Oct;10(1):9-14.

Reuter et al: Effects of a flexibility and relaxation programme, walking, and nordic walking on Parkinson's disease.

Reuter I, Mehnert S, Leone P, Kaps M, Oechsner M, Engelhardt M. (2011). Effects of a flexibility and relaxation programme, walking, and nordic walking on Parkinson's disease. J Aging Res. doi:10.4061/2011/232473


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Prost, E. (2013). Examination Tool Kit. University of Missouri,
School of Health Professions, Department of Physical Therapy

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Updated: August 18, 2014