Pitting Edema - measurement

1+
Barely detectable impression when finger is presssed into skin.
2+
Slight indentation.
15 seconds to rebound
3+
Deeper indentation.
30 seconds to rebound.
4+
> 30 seconds to rebound.

O’Sullivan, S.B. and Schmitz T.J. (Eds.). (2007). Physical rehabilitation: assessment and treatment (5th ed.). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company. p.659


1+
2mm depression, barely detectable.
Immediate rebound.
2+
4mm deep pit.
A few seconds to rebound.
3+
6mm deep pit.
10-12 seconds to rebound.
4+
8mm: very deep pit.
>20 seconds to rebound.

Hogan, M (2007) Medical-Surgical Nursing (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City: Prentice Hall


Alternate method:

  1. Press on skin over tibia. Then run pads of fingers over the area pressed and note if there is an indentation. If indentation is noted, repeat, further up the tibia.
  2. Document the point at which swelling is no longer present (distance above malleolus).

Brunner L. (1982).The Lippincott Manual of Nursing Practice. (3rd ed.). Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia. p.36