Gait Outcome Measures

1.  Dynamic Gait Index (DGI)

2. Figure 8 Walk Test

3. Four Square Step Test (4SST)

4. Functional Gait Assessment (FGA) 

5. Gait Abnormality Rating Scale - modified (GARS-m) 

6. Gait Speed  

7. Groningen Meander Walking Test: A Dynamic Walking Test for Older Adults With Dementia.
Bossers WJR, van der Woude LHV, Boersma F, Scherder EJA, van Heuvelen MJG. (2014). The Groningen Meander Walking Test: A Dynamic Walking Test for Older Adults With Dementia. PHYS THER. 94(2):262-272.

8. Six-Minute Walk: protocol, response guidelines, norms

9. Timed Up and Go (TUG)

9.a  3-Meter Backwards Walk Test

Instructions: "walk backwards as quickly, but as safely as possible".
•    faster than 3.0 seconds - unlikely to have reported falling
•    slower than 4.5 seconds - very likely to have reported falling.

Carter V, Jain T, James J, Cornwall M, Aldrich A, de Heer HD. The 3-m Backwards Walk and Retrospective Falls: Diagnostic Accuracy of a Novel Clinical Measure. J Geriatr Phys Ther. November 2017.

9.b Amputee Mobility Predictor
Community Ambulation Distance

Both Brown et al. and Andrews et al. address "box stores" and consider ADA handicap parking as the norm (this was absent in previous studies).

10. Brown (2010): Defining Community Ambulation From the Perspective of the Older Adult.
Brown CJ, Bradberry C, Howze SG, Hickman L, Ray H, Peel C. (2010).Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy. 33(2):56–63.

11. Andrews (2010): Update on Distance and Velocity Requirements for Community Ambulation.
Andrews WA, Chinworth SA, Bourassa M, Garvin M, Benton D, Tanner S. (2010). Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy. 33(3):128-134.

12. Shumway-Cook (2002). Environmental demands associated with community mobility in older adults with and without mobility disabilities.

Shumway-Cook A, Patla AE, Stewart A, Ferrucci L, Ciol MA, Guralnik JM. (2002).Phys Ther. 82(7):670-81.


Creative Commons license

Prost, E. Willis BW. (2021). Examination Tool Kit. University of Missouri,
School of Health Professions, Department of Physical Therapy

Contact webmaster

Updated:Sept. 18, 2021