Geriatric Examination Tool Kit

Examination - Tool Kit

Summary of available Reference values and Predictive values for some of the instruments below.

Activities-specific Balance Confidence - ABC

Amputee Mobility Predictor (AMP)

Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2 - AIMS2

Balance tests ... (static and dynamic)

Berg Balance Scale

BESTest - Balance Evaluation Sytems Test(and 2 modified versions)

Cardiovascular & Pulmonary ...
DVT, vitals, Borg, 6MW, SpO2, PFT, etc.

Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance - Modified (m-CTSIB)

Cognition ...
Pain thermometer, PAINAD, GDS, etc.


Diabetes Impact Measurement Scale (DIMS)
Hammond GS, Aoki TT. (1991). Measurement of Health Status in Diabetic Patients: Diabetes Impact Measurement Scales. Diabetes Care, 15(4), 469-477.

Driving and Vision

Dynamic Gait Index - DGI

DVT - Deep Vein Thrombosis

Fall Screening tool: STEADI (Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths & Injuries)


Figure of 8 Walk Test

Five Times Sit-to-Stand (5TSTS)

Four Square Step Test
DiteW.2002-Stepping and ChangeDirection-APMR_83. 1566-1571

Fullerton Advanced Balance scale (FAB)

Functional Gait Assessment - FGA

Functional Reach & Multidirectional Reach

Functional Outcomes / ADLs ...
SF-36, FSQ, Katz, Barthel, etc.

Gait outcome measures ...

Gait Abnormality Rating Scale - modified (GARS-M)

Gait Speed (self-selected)

Hand Grip dynamometry: norms
Bohannon, R.W. (2007). Average Grip Strength: A Meta-Analysis of Data Obtained with a Jamar Dynamometer from Individuals 75 Years or More of Ages

History ...

Ipswitch Touch Test (foot sensation testing)

Kyphosis: Flexicurve spinal measurement

Letter to Physician (template)

Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS)

MAHC-10: Missouri Alliance for Health Care - Fall Risk Assessment Tool

Manual Muscle Test - grading

Minimum Chair Height Standing Ability Test (MCHSAT)

Narrow Corridor Walk Test


O Sullivan Functional Balance scales (not validated)
O Sullivan, S.B. and Schmitz T.J. (2007). Physical rehabilitation: assessment and treatment (5th ed.). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company. p.254

Pain ... Faces, drawing, VAS, etc.

Parkinson's Disease: Functional Assessment tools

Physical Performance Test - PPT- modified - 9 item
Brown M. (2005)

Physical Performance Test - PPT - original - 7 item

Physician Letter (template)

Romberg: EC on compliant surface (vestibular): norms
Agrawal Y, Carey JP, Hoffman HJ, Sklare DA, Schubert MC. (2011). The modified Romberg Balance Test: normative data in U.S. adults. Otol Neurotol. 32(8):1309-11.

Saint Louis University mental status examination (SLUMS)

Semmes Weinstein monofilaments - foot sensation

Sensation testing (feet)

Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB)
Guralnik JM, Simonsick EM, Ferrucci L, et al. A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: association  with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and nursing home admission. J Gerontol. 1994;49(2):M85-94.

Single Limb Stance: normative values by decade:

Springer BA, Marin R, Cyhan T, Roberts H, Gill NW. (2007). Normative Values for the Unipedal Stance Test with Eyes Open and Closed. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy. Vol. 30:1, 8-15.

Bohannon RW. (2006). Single Limb Stance Times: A Descriptive Meta-Analysis of Data From Individuals at Least 60 Years of Age. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation 22(1), 70-77.

Sit and Rise from the Floor test

Sit to Stand:
     Five Times Sit to Stand
     30 second Sit to Stand

Social Needs Screening Tool (from American Academy of Family Physicians)

STEADI - tool for Fall Screening (Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths & Injuries)

Tandem Stance norms (Sharpened Romberg), eyes open, eyes closed
Briggs RC, Gossman MR, Birch R, Drews JE, Shaddeau SA. (1989). Balance Performance Among Noninstitutionalized Elderly Women. Physical Therapy. 69(9) 748-756.

Should we offer support to get into tandem position? (Hile, 2012)

Timed Up & Go - TUG

Tinetti: Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment --POMA

Toe Tap Test  (& transfer scales)

Transfer Scales  (& toe tap test)

30 second Chair Stand Test
Rikli RE, Jones CJ (1999). Functional fitness normative scores for community residing older adults ages 60-94. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 7, 160-179.

2 minute Step Test
Rikli RE, Jones CJ (1999). Functional fitness normative scores for community residing older adults ages 60-94. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 7, 160-179.

Vision and Driving

Vestibular ...
CTSIB, Fukuda, MSQ, DGI, ABC, DHI, MFES, etc.

Didn't find the test you were looking for? Try ...

Shirley Ryan Ability Lab (formerly, the Rehabilitation Measures Database, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago)

Goodman, C.G. Snyder, T.E. (2013). Differential Diagnosis for Physical Therapists:
Screening for Referral. (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier. -- Appendices

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Creative Commons license

Prost EL. Willis BW. (2023). Geriatric Examination Tool Kit.
University of Missouri, College of Health Sciences,
Department of Physical Therapy

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Updated:July 5, 2023